Learn go series: Part II - Gorm up!

This is Part 2 of "Learn go" series. You can find the previous post here.

In this post, I will be walking you through an example of interacting with database. A very common scenario, creating a user and storing the password securely. This post picks up from the previous post, so if you haven't read, please skim through it.

Let's begin...

#Defining the problem

We are going to be creating a sign up end-point. For this, we begin by...

#Defining the type User


package model

import "github.com/jinzhu/gorm"

type User struct {
  Username       string `gorm:"not null;unique"`
  HashedPassword string `gorm:"not null"`
  FirstName      string
  LastName       string
  MobileNumber   string `gorm:"not null;unique"`

I have defined password as 'HashedPassword'. We will be storing the password as one-way encrypted hash + salt in this field. If you aren't sure why you should salt and hash your password, please read this crypto.stackexchange.com post

#Setting up and configuring db

Oh, wait, we didn't configure the db connection yet.

#Creating postgres db

$ createdb temp-db


package db

import (
  _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/postgres"

  model "github.com/gauravagarwalr/go-example/src/models"

var dbInstance *gorm.DB

func InitializeDB() {
  dbName := "temp-db"

  localDb, err := gorm.Open("postgres", "dbname="+dbName+" sslmode=disable")

  if err != nil {
    panic("failed to connect database")

  localDb.LogMode(goAppEnvironment != "production")
  dbInstance = localDb

  // Migrate the schema

func Instance() *gorm.DB {
  return dbInstance

In the InitializeDB function we are connecting to the postgres database and we are migrating the app. We will be calling this from the main function of our app.

#Tying it together - An API and crypted password

With the user model defined and the db configured. All we have left to do is the api. Let's see how simple it is to do...


package api

import (

  db "github.com/gauravagarwalr/go-example/src/config/db"
  model "github.com/gauravagarwalr/go-example/src/models"

type newUser struct {
  Username     string
  FirstName    string
  LastName     string
  MobileNumber string
  Password     string

func CreateUserHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
  var newUser newUser

  user := model.User{
    Username:     newUser.Username,
    FirstName:    newUser.FirstName,
    LastName:     newUser.LastName,
    MobileNumber: newUser.MobileNumber}
  user.HashedPassword = model.HashAndSalt(newUser.Password)

  if err := db.Instance().Create(&user).Error; err != nil {
    http.Error(w, err.Error(), unprocessableEntity)


func RunServer(port string) {
  router := mux.NewRouter()

  router.Handle("/users", CreateUserHandler).Methods("POST")

  log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":"+port, router))

CreateUserHandler as the name suggests, gets the users details from the request body and parses it using a newUser struct. We then instantiate the user and save it to the database. In case of any validation issues it sends back a string explaining the error as response with 422 - Unprocessable Entity error code.

Pay close attention to user.HashedPassword = model.HashAndSalt(newUser.Password). We haven't defined the function yet. Let's go back to user.go in model package and define it...


import {

func HashAndSalt(pwd string) string {
  hash, err := bcrypt.GenerateFromPassword([]byte(pwd), bcrypt.MinCost)
  if err != nil {

  return string(hash)


We have built a simple way of storing new user information along with their password in a secure format. Gorm does a lot of things right. And for the sake keeping this post short, I haven't dived deep into some of its interesting aspects. You can see it in action in a sample api on Github.

#Caveats & Honorable mentions

Signing off for now. Please leave your thoughts and comments in the section below.

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